Healthy Ageing

This section provides an overview of the nutrition considerations by life stage and need state.
Select a need state below to learn more.

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Healthy Ageing

Adult years are a broad span chronologically and are complicated by physiological changes and other social economic factors that impact health. The key focus of healthy ageing is on achieving and maintaining positive health and in making lifestyle choices to prevent chronic disease. Nutrition and lifestyle are two key forces behind the success to healthy ageing. A person’s likelihood of ageing well can be greatly enhanced by ensuring their diet contains beneficial macro and micro nutrients. As the body ages, energy requirements are reduced. Mean energy expenditure decreases from the fourth decade of life. Nutrient needs related to energy metabolism may also decrease. However requirements for protein and many vitamins and minerals stay the same and may even increase.

 


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  • References

    Cawood AL, Elia M, Stratton RJ. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of high protein oral nutritional supplements. Ageing Res Rev. 2012;11:278-296. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2011.12.008.

    Freijer K, Tan SS, Koopmanschap MA, Meijers JMM, Ruud J.G. Halfens RJG, Nuijten MJC. The economic costs of disease related malnutrition. Clinical Nutrition. 2013;32;136-141.

    Offord EA, Karagounis LG, Vidal K, Fielding R, Meydani S, Penninger JM. Nutrition and the biology of human ageing: bone health and osteoporosis / sarcopenia / immune deficiency. J Nutr Health Aging. 2013;17(8):712-6. doi: 10.1007/s12603-013-0374-3.

    Philipson TJ, Thornton Snider J, Lakdawalla DN, Stryckman B, Goldman DP. Impact of oral nutritional supplementation on hospital outcomes. Am J Manag Care. 2013;19:121-128.

    Russell CA. The impact of malnutrition on healthcare costs and economic considerations for the use of oral nutritional supplements. Clinical Nutrition Supplements. 2007;2:25-32.

    Slawson DL, Fitzgerald N, Morgan KT. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: the role of nutrition in health promotion and chronic disease prevention. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2013 Jul;113(7):972-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jand.2013.05.005.

Weight Management & Diabetes

  • Obesity is the most common nutritional disorder in the world. Worldwide obesity has nearly doubled since 1980. 35% of adults were overweight or obese in 2008. The prevalence of obesity also rises throughout the adult years
  • 382 million people have diabetes and by 2035 this will rise to 592 million. The greatest number of people with diabetes are between 40-59 years of age
  • Nutritional considerations include: portion and calorie control to support energy balance; protein and fibre intake for appetite regulation and satiety purposes; nutrient density to provide balanced nutrition; lower sugar and fat intake to avoid empty calories and support energy balance; and soluble fibre and wholegrains for blood glucose regulation.
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  • References

    Cawood AL, Elia M, Stratton RJ. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of high protein oral nutritional supplements. Ageing Res Rev. 2012;11:278-296. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2011.12.008.

    Freijer K, Tan SS, Koopmanschap MA, Meijers JMM, Ruud J.G. Halfens RJG, Nuijten MJC. The economic costs of disease related malnutrition. Clinical Nutrition. 2013;32;136-141.

    Offord EA, Karagounis LG, Vidal K, Fielding R, Meydani S, Penninger JM. Nutrition and the biology of human ageing: bone health and osteoporosis / sarcopenia / immune deficiency. J Nutr Health Aging. 2013;17(8):712-6. doi: 10.1007/s12603-013-0374-3.

    Philipson TJ, Thornton Snider J, Lakdawalla DN, Stryckman B, Goldman DP. Impact of oral nutritional supplementation on hospital outcomes. Am J Manag Care. 2013;19:121-128.

    Russell CA. The impact of malnutrition on healthcare costs and economic considerations for the use of oral nutritional supplements. Clinical Nutrition Supplements. 2007;2:25-32.

    Slawson DL, Fitzgerald N, Morgan KT. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: the role of nutrition in health promotion and chronic disease prevention. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2013 Jul;113(7):972-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jand.2013.05.005.

Bone and Joint Health

  • Bone mass increases throughout growth until about the age of 20, when peak bone mass is achieved. From approximately 40 years of age onwards, bone loss exceeds bone formation and bone mass decreases
  • Excess bone loss leads to osteoporosis – a condition characterised by bone fragility and an increased risk of fracture
  • Healthy bones can only be achieved and maintained if the diet meets nutritional requirements. Adeqaute protein and micronutrients such as vitamin D, vitamin K, vitamin A, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium are needed to support bone mineral density. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids have also been shown to be beneficial for joint health to lower inflammation.
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  • References

    Cawood AL, Elia M, Stratton RJ. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of high protein oral nutritional supplements. Ageing Res Rev. 2012;11:278-296. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2011.12.008.

    Freijer K, Tan SS, Koopmanschap MA, Meijers JMM, Ruud J.G. Halfens RJG, Nuijten MJC. The economic costs of disease related malnutrition. Clinical Nutrition. 2013;32;136-141.

    Offord EA, Karagounis LG, Vidal K, Fielding R, Meydani S, Penninger JM. Nutrition and the biology of human ageing: bone health and osteoporosis / sarcopenia / immune deficiency. J Nutr Health Aging. 2013;17(8):712-6. doi: 10.1007/s12603-013-0374-3.

    Philipson TJ, Thornton Snider J, Lakdawalla DN, Stryckman B, Goldman DP. Impact of oral nutritional supplementation on hospital outcomes. Am J Manag Care. 2013;19:121-128.

    Russell CA. The impact of malnutrition on healthcare costs and economic considerations for the use of oral nutritional supplements. Clinical Nutrition Supplements. 2007;2:25-32.

    Slawson DL, Fitzgerald N, Morgan KT. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: the role of nutrition in health promotion and chronic disease prevention. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2013 Jul;113(7):972-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jand.2013.05.005.

Cognitive Health

  • All ageing humans will experience some degree of decline in cognitive capacity as time progresses. Studies indicate the deterioration of the biological framework that underlies the ability to think and reason may begin as early as the mid twenties
  • Cognitive decline does not affect all individuals equally and clear associations exist between the rate and severity of cognitive decline, and a variety of factors including nutritional status
  • In relation to general cognitive health, a number of ingredients have been shown to potentially have a positive impact including long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids – EPA, DHA and ARA, vitamin E, folic acid, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, choline, iron, zinc to support brain health and cognitive performance
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  • References

    Cawood AL, Elia M, Stratton RJ. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of high protein oral nutritional supplements. Ageing Res Rev. 2012;11:278-296. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2011.12.008.

    Freijer K, Tan SS, Koopmanschap MA, Meijers JMM, Ruud J.G. Halfens RJG, Nuijten MJC. The economic costs of disease related malnutrition. Clinical Nutrition. 2013;32;136-141.

    Offord EA, Karagounis LG, Vidal K, Fielding R, Meydani S, Penninger JM. Nutrition and the biology of human ageing: bone health and osteoporosis / sarcopenia / immune deficiency. J Nutr Health Aging. 2013;17(8):712-6. doi: 10.1007/s12603-013-0374-3.

    Philipson TJ, Thornton Snider J, Lakdawalla DN, Stryckman B, Goldman DP. Impact of oral nutritional supplementation on hospital outcomes. Am J Manag Care. 2013;19:121-128.

    Russell CA. The impact of malnutrition on healthcare costs and economic considerations for the use of oral nutritional supplements. Clinical Nutrition Supplements. 2007;2:25-32.

    Slawson DL, Fitzgerald N, Morgan KT. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: the role of nutrition in health promotion and chronic disease prevention. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2013 Jul;113(7):972-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jand.2013.05.005.

Heart Health

  • Heart health refers to the health of the cardiovascular system. Cardiovascular diseases, (CVD), are the number one cause of death globally. CVDs are a group of disorders of the heart and blood vessels and include coronary heart disease, stroke and peripheral vascular disease. Their origin is multifactorial and strongly associated with risk factors such as poor diet and inadequate physical activity
  • Nutritional recommendations for primary and secondary prevention include: healthy fats (MUFA, LCPUFA-EPA/DHA) – recommended to support healthy blood lipids, lower inflammation and improve insulin sensitivity; soluble dietary fibre to regulate blood lipids and glucose and improve insulin sensitivity; and adequate wholegrain and protein intake to support weight management, body composition and normal blood pressure.
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  • References

    Cawood AL, Elia M, Stratton RJ. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of high protein oral nutritional supplements. Ageing Res Rev. 2012;11:278-296. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2011.12.008.

    Freijer K, Tan SS, Koopmanschap MA, Meijers JMM, Ruud J.G. Halfens RJG, Nuijten MJC. The economic costs of disease related malnutrition. Clinical Nutrition. 2013;32;136-141.

    Offord EA, Karagounis LG, Vidal K, Fielding R, Meydani S, Penninger JM. Nutrition and the biology of human ageing: bone health and osteoporosis / sarcopenia / immune deficiency. J Nutr Health Aging. 2013;17(8):712-6. doi: 10.1007/s12603-013-0374-3.

    Philipson TJ, Thornton Snider J, Lakdawalla DN, Stryckman B, Goldman DP. Impact of oral nutritional supplementation on hospital outcomes. Am J Manag Care. 2013;19:121-128.

    Russell CA. The impact of malnutrition on healthcare costs and economic considerations for the use of oral nutritional supplements. Clinical Nutrition Supplements. 2007;2:25-32.

    Slawson DL, Fitzgerald N, Morgan KT. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: the role of nutrition in health promotion and chronic disease prevention. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2013 Jul;113(7):972-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jand.2013.05.005.

Immune Health

  • The immune system is a network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to protect the body from infection. The immune system prevents and limits the entry and growth of harmful microbes to maintain optimal health
  • Normal ageing has a marked effect on immunity, with the cumulative evidence indicating that cell mediated immunity consistently shows age-related decrements in function. Immune function is also susceptible to stress, with many of the same immune deficits as are observed in ageing
  • Adequate protein status is essential to support immune health and may aid in the reduction of infection risk
  • Antioxidants, vitamins and minerals also help to boost natural defences and protect cells.
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  • References

    Cawood AL, Elia M, Stratton RJ. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of high protein oral nutritional supplements. Ageing Res Rev. 2012;11:278-296. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2011.12.008.

    Freijer K, Tan SS, Koopmanschap MA, Meijers JMM, Ruud J.G. Halfens RJG, Nuijten MJC. The economic costs of disease related malnutrition. Clinical Nutrition. 2013;32;136-141.

    Offord EA, Karagounis LG, Vidal K, Fielding R, Meydani S, Penninger JM. Nutrition and the biology of human ageing: bone health and osteoporosis / sarcopenia / immune deficiency. J Nutr Health Aging. 2013;17(8):712-6. doi: 10.1007/s12603-013-0374-3.

    Philipson TJ, Thornton Snider J, Lakdawalla DN, Stryckman B, Goldman DP. Impact of oral nutritional supplementation on hospital outcomes. Am J Manag Care. 2013;19:121-128.

    Russell CA. The impact of malnutrition on healthcare costs and economic considerations for the use of oral nutritional supplements. Clinical Nutrition Supplements. 2007;2:25-32.

    Slawson DL, Fitzgerald N, Morgan KT. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: the role of nutrition in health promotion and chronic disease prevention. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2013 Jul;113(7):972-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jand.2013.05.005.

Muscle Health

  • Human muscle undergoes constant changes. After approximately the age of 50, muscle mass decreases at an annual rate of 1-2%. Muscle strength declines by 1.5% per year between ages 50-60 and by 3% thereafter
  • Sarcopenia is the progressive loss of muscle mass, muscle quality, physical strength and function. On average it is estimated that 5-13% of elderly people aged 60-70 years are affected by sarcopenia
  • The progression of sarcopenia is influenced by insufficient intakes of protein and energy, impaired utililsation of nutrients, insulin resistance, subclinical inflammation and inactivity
  • Adequate protein intake is therefore essential to support muscle building, maintenance and slow muscle loss
  • Adequate energy balance as well as sufficient micronutrient intakes are essential for muscle health.
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  • References

    Cawood AL, Elia M, Stratton RJ. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of high protein oral nutritional supplements. Ageing Res Rev. 2012;11:278-296. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2011.12.008.

    Freijer K, Tan SS, Koopmanschap MA, Meijers JMM, Ruud J.G. Halfens RJG, Nuijten MJC. The economic costs of disease related malnutrition. Clinical Nutrition. 2013;32;136-141.

    Offord EA, Karagounis LG, Vidal K, Fielding R, Meydani S, Penninger JM. Nutrition and the biology of human ageing: bone health and osteoporosis / sarcopenia / immune deficiency. J Nutr Health Aging. 2013;17(8):712-6. doi: 10.1007/s12603-013-0374-3.

    Philipson TJ, Thornton Snider J, Lakdawalla DN, Stryckman B, Goldman DP. Impact of oral nutritional supplementation on hospital outcomes. Am J Manag Care. 2013;19:121-128.

    Russell CA. The impact of malnutrition on healthcare costs and economic considerations for the use of oral nutritional supplements. Clinical Nutrition Supplements. 2007;2:25-32.

    Slawson DL, Fitzgerald N, Morgan KT. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: the role of nutrition in health promotion and chronic disease prevention. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2013 Jul;113(7):972-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jand.2013.05.005.

Digestive Health

  • Digestive health does not cover off one organ or function of the body, but rather encompasses an entire system – the digestive system
  • Digestive ailments are all encompassing and almost everyone experiences digestive issues from time to time, whether it’s an upset stomach, gas, heartburn, or constipation – gastrointestinal woes are often uncomfortable and can be embarrassing
  • Prebiotics and probiotics can help establish and maintain healthy gut microflora, which in turn is beneficial for healthy digestion and stimulation of the immune system
  • A diet rich in fibre can support gut function and can help with regular digestion, constipation and diarrhoea
  • Those with other digestive tolerance issues such as IBS or intolerances, may require specific solutions to ease discomfort.
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    • Ultranor™ Milk Protein Isolates and Concentrates
    • Hyprol™ Hydrolysed Dairy and Plant Proteins
    • EmulGold™ Fibre – Soluble Gum Acacia Fibre
    • Profile™ GOS – GOS Enriched Whey Powder
    • Harvest Solutions™ – Stabalised Wholegrain Base
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    • Selpro™ 80 Selectively Hydrolysed Protein
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  • References

    Cawood AL, Elia M, Stratton RJ. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of high protein oral nutritional supplements. Ageing Res Rev. 2012;11:278-296. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2011.12.008.

    Freijer K, Tan SS, Koopmanschap MA, Meijers JMM, Ruud J.G. Halfens RJG, Nuijten MJC. The economic costs of disease related malnutrition. Clinical Nutrition. 2013;32;136-141.

    Offord EA, Karagounis LG, Vidal K, Fielding R, Meydani S, Penninger JM. Nutrition and the biology of human ageing: bone health and osteoporosis / sarcopenia / immune deficiency. J Nutr Health Aging. 2013;17(8):712-6. doi: 10.1007/s12603-013-0374-3.

    Philipson TJ, Thornton Snider J, Lakdawalla DN, Stryckman B, Goldman DP. Impact of oral nutritional supplementation on hospital outcomes. Am J Manag Care. 2013;19:121-128.

    Russell CA. The impact of malnutrition on healthcare costs and economic considerations for the use of oral nutritional supplements. Clinical Nutrition Supplements. 2007;2:25-32.

    Slawson DL, Fitzgerald N, Morgan KT. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: the role of nutrition in health promotion and chronic disease prevention. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2013 Jul;113(7):972-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jand.2013.05.005.

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